Thursday, March 22, 2012

networking (rangkaian)

"menyambungkan komputer dengan komputer lain dengan untuk membolehkan mereka berkomunikasi antara satu dengan yang lain.

Networking terdiri daripada:
1. peralatan atau peranti komputer
2. media penghantaran untuk menghantar/ kontrol data/ signal
3. peranti komunikasi untuk menghantar/ menghantar data dari sumber destinasi.
4. software(peranti)

* a collection of computers and other hardware devices that are connected together to share hardware, software, and data as well as to comunicate with one another.

Rangkaian komputer terbahagi kepada dua iaitu:
1. Ranngkaian asas
2. Lan

- Rangkaian asas ialah terdiri daripada dua komputer yang bersambung dengan cable untuk membolehkan pertukaran data sumber-sumber lain.
- LAN (Local Area Network) pula ialah membolehkan perkongsian peranti seperti modem dan pencetak.

Klsifikasi rangkaian
1. LAN ( local Area Network) - biasa digunakan dirumah, disekolah dan pejabat
2. WAN ( Wide Area Network)- digunakan di 
3. MAN (Matroplitan Area Network)- Bandar

kompenen-kompenen Rangkaian.
1. Terminal
2.Transmission media
3. network eletronic
4. software
5. network architecture standard

Uses of computer network
1. sharing a printer or internet connections among several users.
2. sharing aplication software with network license, which is cheaper, intalled and updated on one computer only
3. exchanging files among network users and over the internet.
4. facilitating voice over IP, email and other comunications applications.

Advantages of Networking.
1. scalability- computer networks provide an effective mechanism to scale up and provide services to more users at more locations where needed and when needed.
2. Manageability- network allow remote resources to be managed effectively (eg. remote control of telescopes or other resources).
3. cost- effectiveeness -networks allow effective implementation of complex distributed systems that must work together (cooperate). e.g. combination of mainframes, workstation, PC's, networkeed storage and networked printers.

Data Transmission.
1. Simplex
2. Duplex
         i. half duplex
        ii. full duplex.

1. Simplex- one way communications
                - data travels in signle direction only e.g: door bell etc
                - relatively uncommon in computer communications

2. half duplex - data can travel in either direction but only one time at a time.
                     - USB devices are half duplex

3. full Duplex - data can moves in both directions at teh same time, such us with a telephones.
                     - ideals for hardware devices that need to pass large amount af data between each other
                     - many networks and most internet connections are full duplex

1. NIC (Network Interface Card)
2. MEDIA (Network Cable)
3. Hub/ Repeaters
4. Server
5. Workstations
6. NOS (Network operating software)-server
7. NCS (Network Client Software)- workstation